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Volatile Organohalogen Compounds Determination with Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Applying Solvent Lighter than Water

[ Vol. 13 , Issue. 3 ]

Author(s):

Paulina Bigus, Alicja Szalkiewicz, Jacek Namiesnik and Marek Tobiszewski   Pages 262 - 268 ( 7 )

Abstract:


Background: Volatile organohalogen compounds (VOX) are a group of environmental pollutants that risk the quality of drinking water. These compounds are characterized by certain acute and chronic toxicities, possessing mutagenic properties. Because of these potential risks factors that these compounds cause, the maximum allowable concentrations (MACs) have been established by respective organizations. The abundance of VOX, their potential hazards and legislation are driving factors to develop analytical procedures for their determination in water samples.

Objective: The aim of the study is to develop greener DLLME technique for VOX determination in water samples, incorporating extraction solvent lighter than water. To achieve this goal the design of new extraction device is required.

Methods: The DLLME-GC-ECD procedure was developed to perform an analysis of water samples in order to determine VOX. The sample preparation step was performed by applying the solvent lighter than water (pentane).

Results: The best results regarding sample preparation are obtained when 70 µ L of pentane is used as extractant solvent, 0.5 mL acetone is used as dispersive solvent. The analytical procedure is characterized by good analytical performance with limit of detection within 0.0010 - 0.30 µ g L-1 and precision within 2.4 - 6.6% range.

Conclusion: Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction is a suitable technique for determination of VOX. The newly designed extraction device is suitable for extraction of organic compounds as the area of polymeric parts is greatly reduced in comparison to similar home-made extraction devices. It allows for application of pentane - solvent lighter than water and safer in use than carbon disulfide.

Keywords:

Trihalomethanes, green analytical chemistry, sample preparation, liquid microextraction, gas chromatography, environmental pollutants.

Affiliation:

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdansk

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