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Green Dispersive Micro Solid-Phase Extraction using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Preconcentration and Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Food, Water, and Tobacco Samples

[ Vol. 16 , Issue. 4 ]


Ayman A. Gouda*, Ali H. Amin, Ibrahim S. Ali and Zakia Al Malah   Pages 381 - 392 ( 12 )


Background: Cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) have acute and chronic effects on humans and other living organisms. In the present work, new, green and accurate dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (DμSPE) method for the separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of cadmium (Cd2+) and lead (Pb2+) ions in various food, water and tobacco samples collected from Saudi Arabia prior to its Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (FAAS) determinations was developed.

Methods: The proposed method was based on a combination of oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) with a new chelating agent 5-benzyl-4-[4-methoxybenzylideneamino)-4H- 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (BMBATT) to enrich and separate trace levels of Cd2+ and Pb2+. The effect of separation parameters was investigated. The validation of the proposed preconcentration procedure was performed using certified reference materials.

Results: Analyte recovery values ranged from 95-102%, indicating that the method is highly accurate. Furthermore, precision was demonstrated by the relative standard deviation (RSD < 3.0%). The limits of detection were 0.08 and 0.1 μg L−1 for Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 200.

Conclusion: The proposed method was used for the estimation of Cd2+ and Pb2+ ion content in various real samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. The proposed method has high adsorption capacity, rapid adsorption equilibrium, extremely low LODs, high preconcentration factors and shortens the time of sample preparation in comparison to classical SPE.


Cadmium, dispersive micro solid-phase extraction, food, lead, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, water and tobacco samples.


Faculty of Public Health and Health Informatics, Umm AL-Qura University, Makkah, Deanship of Scientific Research, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Faculty of Public Health and Health Informatics, Umm AL-Qura University, Makkah, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm AL-Qura University, Makkah

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