Submit Manuscript  

Article Details

Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Based on Ionic Liquid and Spectrophotometric Determination of Bilirubin in Biological Samples


Asiye Aslıhan Avan* and Hayati Filik   Pages 1 - 8 ( 8 )


Background: An ionic liquid-based based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ILDLLME) method was not applied to preconcentration and determination of bilirubin. Ionic liquids (ILs) are new chemical compounds. In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs) have been employed as alternative solvents to toxic organic solvents. Due to these perfect properties, ILs have already been applied in many analytical extraction processes, presenting high extraction yield and selectivity for analytes.

Methods: In this study, IL-DLLME was applied to biological samples (urine and serum) for the spectrophotometric detection of bilirubin. For bilirubin analysis, the full-color development was based on the reaction with periodate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. The high affinity of bilirubin for the ionic liquid phase gave extraction percentages above 98% in 0.3 M HCl solution.

Results: Several IL-extraction parameters were optimized and room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl- 1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and ethanol were used as extraction and disperser solution. The linear range was found in the range of 0.5-6.0 μM (0.3-3.5 μg mL-1) and the limits of detection of the proposed method was 0.5 μM (0.3 μg mL-1). The proposed method was applied for the preconcentration and separation of trace bilirubin in real urine samples. Also, the recoveries for bilirubin in spiked biological samples (urine and serum) were found to be acceptable, between 95-102%.

Conclusion: The proposed IL-DLLMEapproach was employed for the enrichment and determination of trace levels of bilirubin in urine samples using NaIO4 as an oxidizing agent and Uv-vis spectrophotometric detection. The periodate oxidation of bilirubin is rapid, effective, selective, and simple to perform. The method contains only HCl, NaOI4, and an anionic surfactant. The method may be useful for economizing in the consumption of reagents in bilirubin determining. The IL-DLLMEmethod ensures a high yield and has a low toxicity no skin sensitization, no mutagenicity and no ecotoxicity in an aquatic environment since only very low quantities of an IL is required. For full-color formation, no any extra auxiliary reagents are required. Besides, the IL-DLLME technique uses a low-cost instrument such as Uv-vis which is present in most of the medical laboratories.


Analysis, bilirubin, ionic liquid, microextraction, serum, spectrophotometry, urine.


Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320 Avcılar, Istanbul, Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320 Avcılar, Istanbul

Read Full-Text article