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Enhancement of Adsorption-Photocatalysis of Malachite Green Using Oil Palm Biomass-Derived Activated Carbon/ Titanium Dioxide Composite

Author(s):

Yean Ling Pang*, Wen Shun Teh, Steven Lim, Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah, Hwai Chyuan Ong and Chien-Hou Wu   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Background: Nowadays, effective wastewater treatment has become a hot research topic in the field of environment. A series of novel activated carbon/ titanium dioxide (AC/TiO2) composites at various weight ratio were synthesised using the sol-gel method and were characterised using XRD, SEM-EDX, FT-IR, TGA and surface area analysis.

Method: TiO2 particles were successfully incorporated on the AC surface and were mainly composed of Ti, O and C atoms. The AC/TiO2 composites were made up of spherical TiO2 particles agglomerated on the smooth tubular and porous structure of AC. The photocatalytic efficiency was influenced by the weight proportion of AC:TiO2 and the degradation process was attributed to the adsorption and photocatalytic processes.

Results: It was found that 2.5 g/L AC/TiO2 at a weight ratio of 3:1 on an initial Malachite Green concentration of 10 mg/L at 50°C led to a degradation efficiency of 96.3% in 7.5 minutes under a halogen lamp. A chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 96.7% was also recorded. Reusability of the AC/TiO2 composite and kinetic study of the photodegradation of Malachite Green were also investigated. The recycled AC/TiO2 composite achieved high catalytic performance (83.1%) after one catalytic cycle.

Conclusion: The degradation kinetics of Malachite Green at various solution temperatures were fitted to the pseudo-first-order reactions and the activation energy for the degradation of Malachite Green was 21.48 kJ/mol. This work demonstrated that AC/TiO2 composite is a promising material for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

Keywords:

Activated carbon, adsorption-photocatalysis, biomass, empty fruit bunch, malachite green, TiO2.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, 14300 Penang, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, College of Nuclear Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013



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