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Current Nanotechnology Based Solutions for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment

[ Vol. 17 , Issue. 2 ]

Author(s):

Shabnam Murshid, Kannappan Panchamoorthy Gopinath and Dhakshinamoorthy Gnana Prakash*   Pages 166 - 184 ( 19 )

Abstract:


Background: Industrialization plays an important role in the growth of a nation. But it is also one of the causes of the deteriorating condition of our ecosystem. The pollution, be it aquatic, terrestrial, or air-borne, has affected our environment drastically, and industrial and domestic wastewater plays a major role in it. As the Earth transforms into urban sprawl, industries flourish, pollution increases and the natural resources deplete. Recently nano-engineering based technologies have been explored for the purpose of wastewater treatment, which helps in the detection and remediation of the pollutants present in wastewater. Various nano-material based technologies deployed in wastewater treatment are discussed in this article.

Methods: A thorough survey of the literature was effectuated, and the study was focused mainly on the different types of nanomaterials applied for the purpose of wastewater management and the diverse treatment methods related to them. Literature was also studied to confirm the functionalization of nanomaterials as pollution sensors.

Results: There are four main kinds of nano-materials employed for the purpose of wastewater remediation, i.e. metallic nanomaterials, carbon-based nanomaterials, nanocomposites, and dendrimers. The treatment technologies utilizing these materials include nanofiltration, nanoadsorption, nano-photocatalysis, and disinfection.

Conclusion: Nanomaterials are quite efficient in removing pollutants from different kinds of wastewater. But drawbacks such as expenditure and effect of the materials in the environment make it difficult for real-time utilization. Since the nano-scaled elements behave differently than their standard-sized counterparts, the consequence of these materials in the human life cycle is unknown. This knowledge gap should be filled so that these materials can be adopted worldwide.

Keywords:

Disinfection, nano-adsorption, nano-photocatalysis, nanofiltration, nanomaterials, nanotechnology, wastewater treatment.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 603110, Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 603110, Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, 603110



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