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Current Trends in the Detection of Biological Proteins and Immunological Assays using Graphene Quantum Dots

Author(s):

Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Sargol Mazraedoost, Ahmad Gholami*, Khadije Yousefi, Wei-Hung Chiang, Yasin Sadeghipour, Aziz Babapoor, Navid Omidifar and Muhammad Akram   Pages 1 - 15 ( 15 )

Abstract:


Background: There is a vital need to advance a cheap, quick, and robust strategy to detect biological proteins since these biomolecules are regularly utilized as biomarkers responsible for diagnosing many diseases such as malignancies. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted extensive consideration of researchers in various fields because of their particular optical properties and extraordinary execution in photovoltaic gadgets, photocatalysis, and biological imaging. These nanomaterials adequately improve the sensor performance for their reproducibility, selectivity just as effectively. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) comprise discrete highlights, starting as attractive fluorophores and superb electro-impulses inferable from their photographic soundness, water-solvency, biocompatibility, non-poisonous quality, and making them an ideal contender for a wide range of new biomedical applications.

Methods: All online published studies and online content related to the detection of biological proteins and immunological assays using graphene quantum dots from January 2000 to 2020 are reviewed. This review begins with a rundown of the new methodologies and various structures of graphene quantum dots. In the next step, the detailed description is followed on their applications in the fields of protein and immune detection for drug probing applications.

Results: After providing a brief review for chemical and biological synthesis of GQD, in this review, we categorized the detection method of biological proteins using GQD into four main categories including, GQD fluorescence sensors for serum enzyme detection, ultra-trace detection of biological using GQDs, GQD-based immunological assays (immunosensors) especially for cancer and cardiac biomarkers, protein probing for theragnostic purposes.

Conclusion: Through this review, we discuss the current trends and future application of graphene quantum dots and their role in proteins and other biomolecules detection, diagnosis in diseases, and their importance in theragnostic applications.

Keywords:

Immunosensing, protein detection, drug probing, Graphene Quantum Dots (GQDs), theragnostic applications, review.

Affiliation:

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Biotechnology Research Center, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz 71348-14336, Department of Eastern Medicine, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad



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