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Voltammetric Analysis of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs with Solid Electrodes

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 3 ]


Dilek Kul*   Pages 240 - 248 ( 9 )


Background: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of atypical antipsychotic drugs used for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder obtaining satisfactory results can be ensured by voltammetric techniques. The aim of this review is to present the application of voltammetric techniques developed for the determination of the atypical antipsychotic drugs, which are amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine fumarate, risperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone, in pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological samples.

Methods: Studies in the literature published between 2004 and 2017 based on the voltammetric determination of atypical antipsychotic drugs were gathered using scientific databases. The results obtained from these studies were combined and interpreted.

Results: Voltammetric techniques applied for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of the selected atypical antipsychotic drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids were compared. The best analysis conditions were obtained after the optimization of some parameters such as buffer type, pH, and scan rate. For diffusion controlled electrode processes, it was observed that differential pulse and square wave voltammetry methods were generally used for the sensitive quantitative determination of the drugs, whereas stripping methods were used for the adsorption controlled electrode processes. Detection limits were between 1.53×10-3 µM for clozapine and 0.97 µM for risperidone.

Conclusion: The electrodes used in the studies showed high selectivity, sensitivity, and good accuracy with precision. The developed methods were also applied to pharmaceutical preparations of the drugs and biological fluids with satisfactory results, without any interference from inactive excipients.


Atypical antipsychotic drug, voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, stripping voltammetry, quantitative determination, solid electrode.


Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080, Ortahisar, Trabzon

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